evaluate the contribution of Sutherland’s theory as such. The development of social learning theory can be traced back to the work of Robert L. Burgess and Ronald L. Akers in 1966, as presented in their work entitled “A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behaviour” This work combined the earlier sociological theory of differential association with the developmental psychological theory of reinforcement. Origins . 4. Akers reviews research on various correlates and predictors of crime and delinquency that may be used as operational measures of differential association, reinforcement, and other social learning concepts. Later, Akers added the idea of imitation to differential reinforcement theory and started to refer the theory as social learning theory. In what specific ways does Akers' social learning theory build upon Sutherland's theory of differential association? Reinforcement would either increase or decrease the strength of behavior (Akers, 1984). * 1996 - Criminology. In what way? This means that the media and other influences are secondary. 2. Do you think that social learning theory is an improvement over differential association theory? Also, one of the four main concepts of Akers’s social learning theory. The differential association theory revolves around the concept of learning through interactions. Since Burgess and Akers's first conceptualization and Akers's more recent refinements of social learning theory, a considerable amount of support has been evidenced surrounding its four theoretical components: differential association, differential reinforcement, definitions, and imitation. AKERS, R. L. IS DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION/SOCIAL LEARNING CULTURAL DEVIANCE THEORY? Other articles where A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior is discussed: Ronald L. Akers: Burgess and published as “A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior” (1966), drew upon earlier work by the American criminologist Edwin Sutherland and the American psychologist B.F. Skinner. Differential association theory remains important to the field of criminology, although critics have objected to its failure to take personality traits into account. Differential Association Theory. In-text: (AKERS, 1996) Your Bibliography: AKERS, R., 1996. attempted to test differential association, and look at the most important factors in determining why some teenagers abuse alcohol and marijuana, and why some don't. This latest volume in the distinguished Advances in Criminological Theory series explores the impact of this theory. Criminology, 34(2), pp.229-247. 3. Burgess and Akers called their theory the Differential- Reinforcement theory. Criminal Behaviour is learnt in interacting and communicating with other people. After Sutherland passed away, the Differential Association theory was most notably expanded upon by sociologist Burgess and Akers in 1968. Akers retains the process of differential association, and expands upon it in his theory. Both of them felt that the theory had a good fundamental base, but it could be revised to be more useful. Dr. Burgess and Dr. Akers began discussing Dr. Edwin Sutherland's Theory of Differential Association. The first two stages were used by Edwin Sutherland in his Differential Association Theory. Simply put, Sutherland’s ideas were just too hard to put into action and measure quantitatively so Akers and Burgess revised Southerland’s theory of differential association in their theory called the social learning theory. Burgess and Akers’s (1966) differential association-reinforcement theory was an effort to meld Sutherland’s (1947) sociological approach in his differential association theory and principles of behavioral psychology. They disregarded Sutherland’s view that criminal behavior was learned in primary reference groups. Social learning theory is not a competitive with differential association theory. Burgess and Akers stated that : from the time an individual is born they are being accustomed to the This is a social learning theory presented in nine steps. However, this learning is specific, and it strictly adheres to values, attitudes, and behaviors. Akers has continued his early work with Burgess to develop what is now known as SLT; this development of the the-ory relies primarily on four major theoretical concepts: differential associa-tion, definitions, differential reinforcement, and imitation. Why? From your own understanding of the causes of crime that is based upon your personal experience, do you think that social learning theory can guide current research? which suggests that both deviant behavior and … The “differential association” part of Sutherland’s theory in contrast to the “differential social organization” part, purports to identify the general process by which persons become criminals. b) heightened expectancies that are innate in the individual. Some equate it with differential association theory. c) social reinforcements given by significant others. ... (Burgess & Akers: 1966) Social Learning Theory has been used in mentoring programs that should, in theory, prevent some future criminal behaviour. According to Sutherland's differential association theory (Sutherland, Cressey, & Luckenbill, ... (Akers et al., 1979). Edwin H. Sutherland proposed "differential association theory" as one explanation as to why people turn to crime. Akers proposes a new, integrated theory of social learning and social structure that links group diff erences in crime to individual conduct. According to Akers' differential association reinforcement theory, criminal behavior develops primarily as the result of: a) frustration. Before Sutherland introduced his theory of differential association, the explanations for criminal behavior were varied and inconsistent. However, it does not explain why many individuals who have been heavily exposed to people who violate the law still engage in conventional behavior most of the time.Criminologist Ronald Akers (1998) has combined differential association theory with elements of psychological learning theory to create differential reinforcement theory. The first two stages were used by Edwin Sutherland in his Differential Association Theory. Akers (2004) 8 Melossi (2004) ,-9 Siegel (1998, p. 196) s to Lainer & Henry (2004) 2. 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