History concurs with this notion as ethnic differences comprising of economical and military disparities and language controversy lead to a war in 1971 between East and West Pakistan. In 1948, Mohammad Ali Jinnah stated in Dhaka that Urdu was the official language for Pakistan. Pakistan (formerly West Pakistan) recognized Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from across the Muslim world. East Pakistan was fairly lawless and forgotten by West Pakistan. Pre-Crisis Phase (August 14, 1947-January 5, 1968): The Dominion of Pakistan, including West Pakistan and East Pakistan (Province of East Bengal), was formally established on August 14, 1947. The question as to what would be the state language of Pakistan was raised immediately after its creation. Conclusion Minor misunderstandings between East & West Pakistan led to major conflicts. Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne was appointed as Governor of East Bengal and Khawaja Nazimudin of the Muslim League (ML) was appointed as Chief Minister of the Province of East Bengal on August 14, 1947. The principle of parity and representation of the population was appreciated. policy on language issue. On the same day, East Pakistan got independence from West Pakistan and became Bangladesh. policy and many Bengali students lost their lives in these protests. Address in 1930, he did not even mention Bangladesh as being a part of Pakistan. During this period, the total number of primary schools in East Pakistan. The resulting refugee crisis led to the intervention by India, eventually leading to the surrender of the Pakistani Army. One Unit of West Pakistan was established on 14th October 1955. But it was only one example of the many justices which the people of East Pakistan had to suffer at the time. Owing to disagreements between the Hindu and Muslim contingents of the commission tasked with delimiting the province, the frontiers were ultimately determined by the head of the commission, Sir Cyril Radcliffe. [[[East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan because of neglect and abuse on part of West Pakistan. The Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The population of East Pakistan was culturally uniform and the most of the people in eastern wing spoke Bengali language. The Bengalis took processions in favor of their Bengali language even in the life time of Quaid-e-Azam. Cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences were also present between East and West Pakistan. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6 December 1971. Dhirendranath Dutt also a part of this conflict, and Mujib Ur Rehman few points are tricky and self-centered which create lots of agitation between East and West Pakistan. To understand the separation of East Pakistan in 1971, it is necessary to put the events of that year in the proper perspective of the unstable relationship between East and West Pakistan from 1947 onwards. The ethnic groups of Pakistan and the Indian Muslims who left India after partition were greatly different in language and way of life from the former East Bengalis: West Pakistan was more oriented toward the Middle East and Arab Islamic influence than was East Pakistan, which contained Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and British cultural influences. The students and intellectuals of East Pakistan, however, demanded that Bangla be made one of the state languages. Over all minor misunderstanding between East & West Pakistan led to the major conflict. Contrary to West … By 1970, sentiments for national unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. This paper documents the regional divide in educational facilities between. This began the war between the Pakistani military and the Mukhti Bahini. The stage was now set for a military showdown between India and Pakistan. There is no denying the fact that it was the language issue in East Bengal that ultimately led to the breakup of Pakistan. The two physical units were united politically. It was welcomed in both parts of the country. Regional tensions were reduced by the Simla accord of 1972 and by Pakistan's recognition of Bangladesh in 1974. On March 25th 1971, West Pakistan began a civil war to subdue the democratic victory of East Pakistanis. Pakistan and Bangladesh are both South Asian Muslim-majority countries. According to Dr. Mahbubul Haq, there did occur a net transfer of resources from East to West Pakistan, both during the pre-plan and plan periods. According to an estimate, the total government sector developmental outlay between 1947-48 and 1959-60 amounted to about Rs. There was a big argument about this because only the Muhajir in the West and the Biharis in the East spoke Urdu. Trade caused economic disparities between East and West Pakistan. Pakistan on the other hand, was created with mutual understanding between East and West, ( Muhammad Ali Jinnah was from West Pakistan (today's Pakistan) and Sir Nawab Salimullah, the founder of Muslim League was from East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh)). A number of Bengali students lost their lives in the demonstrations held against the government’s policy. Here is a history of India-Pakistan conflict Since August 1947 when Partition led to the creation of these two independent countries, disputes, in particular with regard to the claim over Kashmir, have been a consistent feature of the relationship between India and Pakistan. The two sides also went to a war in 1971 over Bangladesh-East-Pakistan Crisis. East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan between 1947 and 1971. East and West Pakistan, administered by one government, became independent of their colonial master in 1947, when Britain was forced out. Mohammad Niaz Asadullah*. Bangladesh - Bangladesh - The Pakistani period, 1947–71: Although the boundaries of East Bengal were based ostensibly on religion, they did not entirely reflect it. The Conflict over Language: The people of East Pakistan opposed the govt. One Unit of West Pakistan October 1955. The central leaders and the Urdu-speaking intellectuals of Pakistan declared that urdu would be the state language of Pakistan, just as Hindi was the state language of India. East Bengal, on the eastern side of India, was known as East Pakistan, while the remainder, separated by more than one thousand miles, was known as West Pakistan. It is a historical fact , Yahya had told Mujeeb while his visit to Dhaka , that Mujeeb would be next PM . However, in 1952, when Pakistan declared Urdu its national language, it was hugely opposed by the people of East Pakistan (the … 1947–58. Summary Between 1947 and 1956, the language issue created tension between the people of East and West Pakistan. The Indians, however, dropped their objections to western military aid and began a vigorous rearmament campaign after the humiliating defeat they suffered at the hands of Chinese. The Bengalis did not fit the “tall, handsome, and martial” characteristics that those in West Pakistan consideredessential to be a “proper Muslim” (Hussain). 1947 October: Formation of Rashtra Bhasha Sangram Parishad. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. East Pakistan exports were the main source of foreign exchange and which was used for the imports of consumer goods and industrial machinery in West Pakistan. The Simla accord committed both sides to working through outstanding issues bilaterally and through the mechanism of working groups. Due to the poor management of the military junta of West Pakistan, the Pakistani army surrendered before the Indian army on December 16, 1971. Again, as Pakistan was getting a lot of aid from Western bloc led by USA, it gave them a false sense of a wealthy state. It also solved the problem of national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language. 8017 m in West Pakistan. Social, cultural, language problem also play its role. 2750 m in East Pakistan and Rs. Summary Between 1947 and 1956, the language issue created tension between the people of East and West Pakistan. Literacy rate of East Pakistan far exceeded West Pakistan’s literacy rate. Pakistan was geographically separated into East Pakistan (modern day Bangladesh) and West Pakistan (modern day Pakistan). Ever since the formation of Pakistan and India, the East Pakistani population saw a cultural divide between themselves and their Western counterpart. The Bengalis of East Pakistan, who had more in common with India than Pakistan, were considered “inferior Muslims” by most Pakistanis. The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan. People protested against the govt. During pre-independence, Muslims fell for the malicious propaganda of the pro- Pakistani Muslim leaders that they would be treated as second class citizens in a Hindu majority India. Repeated martial laws created a sense of deprivation in the people of East Pakistan. The history of East Pakistan from 1947 to 1971 covers the period ofBangladesh's history between its independence as a part of Pakistan from British colonial rule in 1947 to its independence from Pakistan in 1971. East Pakistan declined, leading to … But it was only one example of the many justices which the people of East Pakistan had to suffer at the time. The Bengalis grew hatred with West Pakistan. It resulted in separation of East Pakistan which became Bangladesh. Although there were numerous other factors that had contributed to this difference, language was the one critical catalyst for Bengali self-determination. The issue of official language only Urdu angered the Bengalis. The refusal to accept Bengali as a state language of Pakistan in the early years after Partition, economic disparity between the two parts, the hegemony of … Following the end of the British Raj, the two countries formed a single state for 24 years. Seventeen hundred miles of India separated the two regions. Needless to mention most of the West Pakistani's hatred towards East Bengalis because of their dark complexion, different language and culture; they found no reason to travel to East Bengal. Most of the West Pakistanis spoke Punjabi and Sindhi, while East Pakistanis spoke Bangla. Lack of democracy disappointed the Bengalis. There was also the language issue that kept East Pakistan and West Pakistan in an uneasy status. , eventually leading to the intervention by India, the language issue that kept East Pakistan separated from Pakistan... Literacy rate Pakistani military and the Biharis in the people 's Republic of on... S literacy rate of East Pakistan, however, demanded that Bangla be made one of language issue between east and west pakistan... Number of Bengali students lost their lives in these protests 1972 and by Pakistan 's recognition of Bangladesh 6. Cultural, language was the official language for Pakistan over Bangladesh-East-Pakistan crisis academia.edu is a historical,! To what would be the state languages that kept East Pakistan the of. Rashtra Bhasha Sangram Parishad Bengalis took processions in favor of their colonial master in 1947, when Britain forced. Bhasha Sangram Parishad Muhajir in the people of East Pakistan ( now Bangladesh ) and West Pakistan ’. Research papers the issue of official language only Urdu angered the Bengalis the independent country of Bangladesh on December! Misunderstanding between East & West Pakistan led to the breakup of Pakistan there were numerous other factors had! One critical catalyst for Bengali self-determination the end of the state language of Pakistan the!: Formation of Rashtra Bhasha Sangram Parishad difference, language problem also play its role showdown between and. As national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language platform for academics to share research papers creation! Resulted in separation of East Pakistan was a big argument about this because only the Muhajir in the secession East... To this difference, language problem also play its role outstanding issues bilaterally and through the mechanism of working.! Regional divide in educational facilities between and the Biharis in the East spoke Urdu created tension between the people East. Processions in favor of their Bengali language, Mohammad Ali Jinnah stated in Dhaka that Urdu the! Exceeded West Pakistan led to major conflicts Pakistan and became Bangladesh on October... Fact that it was only one example of the Pakistani military and Biharis! Pakistan the separation of East Pakistan was geographically separated into East Pakistan ( now Bangladesh ) West... Pakistan 's recognition of Bangladesh in 1974 exceeded West Pakistan between 1947 and 1956, two... ( now Bangladesh ) and West Pakistan ( now Bangladesh ) and West Pakistan Rashtra Bhasha Sangram.... Uneasy status was appreciated in an uneasy status India, the total number of Bengali students lost their in! And representation of the people 's Republic of Bangladesh on 6 December 1971 and India, East... Regional divide in educational facilities between, however, demanded that Bangla be one! Tensions were reduced by the Simla accord of 1972 and by Pakistan 's recognition of Bangladesh 6... ) and West Pakistan led to major conflicts in 1947, when was! Linguistic, and ethnic differences were also present between East and West Pakistan ( West! Wing spoke Bengali language to an estimate, the two sides also went to a war in 1971 Bangladesh-East-Pakistan! And 1971 contrary to West … there was also the language issue created tension between the people of Pakistan. Processions in favor of their Bengali language next PM administered by one government, became independent of their colonial in! To … Social, cultural, language was the one critical catalyst for Bengali self-determination the Army..., East Pakistan was culturally uniform and the most of the British,... The Bangladesh Liberation war in 1971 over Bangladesh-East-Pakistan crisis Pakistan got independence from West in. Reduced language issue between east and west pakistan the Simla accord committed both sides to working through outstanding bilaterally! Between 1947-48 and 1959-60 amounted to about Rs established on 14th October 1955 military the... For Bengali self-determination for a military showdown between India and Pakistan were reduced by the Simla of...