endobj endobj <>stream 1 w ( Status & Teaching of English in Pakistan )Tj 1 w 0 Tr English language performs various functions in Pakistan. /XC2 10 Tf An international Labor Organization Project in Cambodia, Graeme Storer 12. ET You can leave comments on an English video. Q Paper presented to. Free online resources are user-friendly technologies which have become available through the Internet in recent years and gaining popularity during Covid-19. (Coleman 20, language in development, where English is view, language as development, with English being taught ‘as an end in itself’, language for development, where ‘English is used as a tool for other domains of, language of development, ‘the discourses that construct the ways in which. 0 0 0 rg x��YYo7~�_1o����[}��4m�9�})���N|4v� ���\��J3��u��E��ȏ��XI����@^.������}�7���� t��p���_��X)�U���1Cˇ Finally, I suggest that unsubstantiated faith in the supposed benefits of English language education for all may divert precious resources from urgent language education for development tasks and ultimately benefit mostly the relatively well-off at the expense of the poorest. Q The communication and pedagogy are part and parcel of each other as well as the teaching process. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, language classrooms in Pakistan. Q People of Sindh are liable towards an agricultural based lifestyle. BT q Therefore, by addressing the potential barriers, language assessment practices can be reshaped in a way that they are conducive to language learning and teaching. q 0 0 0 rg AL-QALAM ‫القلم‬ Boons of Multilingualism: Socio-cultural Implications of Multilingual Education System at Elementary Level in Pakistan, Cultural Implications on Teaching and Learning English at Graduate Level: A Minimalist Approach, PEELI Training and Professional Development of Primary School Teachers, Factors Contributing Low English Language Literacy in Rural Primary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan, LINGUISTIC DIVIDE AND THE FATE OF REGIONAL LANGUAGE(S) IN PAKISTANI EDUCATION SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FROM GRADUATE STUDENTS, Challenges of Learning English in 21st Century Online vs. English is the language of power in comparison with Urdu, the national language, and other regional languages of Pakistan. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. BT Q q The learning of different languages was found to be significant: the learning of native language by the leaners was found indispensible for the preservation of one's own identity, history, ethnicity, culture, and for the linking of oneself to one's community, whether small or large, the learning of the national language, Urdu, was found significant for linking oneself to one's national community, and the learning of English was found significant for establishing links with the global community. It should be noted that the existing proficiency lev. classroom communication namely directive speech act, representative speech act, 1 0 0 1 -340.05 26 Tm BT The target population was 1947 male primary school teachers, of whom 330 was selected. A person needs a mastery of various elements to use the language to convey thoughts, wishes, intentions, feeling and information in a written form (Pamela, 1991). 1 0 obj<> Q <>stream 0 Tr Q Q The linguistic map of Pakistan is, quite complex with many languages; each of the four provinces has one or mor, dominant languages and a number of minority languages. (Language in India 7 : 12 December 2007)Tj complex dynamics of language policy and practice. The four main skills of the English language are reading, listening, speaking, and writing. 0 0 0 rg ( Akram & Mahmood 5)Tj ET Accordingly, the study mainly suggests that language teachers should be equipped with necessary teaching resources along with continuous specialised training to meet the challenges. Hyderabad, India: Contemporary issues in language, education, Language as the repository of knowledge and, The discourse of ‘English as a language for. Since learners use smartphones, free online resources are easily accessible. The present study was thus planned to analyze the effect of PEELI (Punjab Education and English Language Initiative) training on communication skills of primary school teachers. /XC4 10 Tf It consists of two main parts and an addendum. The emblematic status of, English, due to its historical association with the elite and proto-elite (Haque 1, Rahman 1998, 2002), has helped in making it a pr, the language of power in comparison with Urdu, the national language, and other, regional languages of Pakistan (Rassool and Mansoor 2009). 3 0 obj BT English, being an international and communities’ language, is enjoying a powerful status of medium of instruc-tion in Pakistan since after the partition. <>stream Education and Development: Perspectives from Post-colonial Countrie, culture: Deconstructing myths about African languages. Q <>stream Q Education in a multilingual world. This study investigated the types, the functions, and the forms of speech acts 0 0 0 RG Otherwise, the efforts invested in these projects ar, The challenges faced by language planners, policy makers and practitioners in, other languages for local, national and global use, We must remember that Pakistan is not alone in facing these challenges. published in the Proceedings of that conference (Shamim 2007a). /XC1 10 Tf ( Akram & Mahmood 2)Tj q The business class in endobj Second, the findings of a nationwide study of the, universities in Pakistan are reported so as to initiate discussion on the adequacy, or otherwise of provisions for the teaching-learning of English in Pakistan; Marsh’s, (2005) framework of ‘drivers’ and ‘enablers’ is used for this purpose. How can the goal of English for All be, English sufficient for the masses to learn English (which is often their third or, fourth language)? Liaquat Ali Channa, English in Pakistani public education, Language Problems and Language Planning, 10.1075/lplp.41.1.01cha, 41, 1, (1-25), (2017). They felt that the central gov… This is in sharp, contrast to the policy of having just one national language as a marker of unity, and nationhood, prevalent among nations in South Asia and Africa during the early, UNESCO’s position paper titled ‘Education in a multilingual world’ (2003) urges a, change in attitudes towards multilingualism as it is a reality in many nations of the, world. The shock of the new, Anne Hollingworth and Susan Spencer 7. 5 0 obj 0 0 0 rg 1 w In H.Coleman (ed. Additionally, that learners will use English in the classroom. endobj 19 0 obj 0 0 0 RG English medium and Urdu medium. 1 w The respondents were selected through non-probability sampling technique, subject to their agreement to participate as respondents in the study. 0 0 0 RG 0 0 0 RG It is also the language of internet and international media. 0 0 0 RG The results of the study that the primary school teachers were able to use English as Medium of Instruction. For this purpose, at random, 50 teaching professionals of elementary level were face-to-face interviewed from district Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. q The teachers, regardless of being affiliated to public or private universities, are neither formally trained nor motivated to engage in professional development. Is English here to stay? Often a lot of aid money, is spent on improving the English proficiency of people and communities in the, recipient nation states before or alongside other dev, in the field of education. The current study, therefore, is an attempt to gain insight into the reasons of and the resulting consequences of these unsatisfactory assessment practices. BT This greatly facilitated the work of the project and initial success was r, several reports and studies (e.g. /XC7 10 Tf 1 0 0 1 36 26 Tm This study investigates students' perceptions about using English in education and its role in defining the fate of regional languages in Pakistan. ET 1 0 0 1 36 26 Tm enabling international collaboration and co-operation, facilitating the international mobility of students, tourists, workers and others, facilitating disaster relief and disaster prepar, acting as an impartial language in contexts of disharmony. New Delhi: NCER, postcolonial world. /XC5 10 Tf /XC1 10 Tf The study determined to find out the status of English language teaching at primary level by focusing grade 4 in the government primary schools in Punjab, Pakistan, after the introduction of English as a compulsory subject from grade 1 in 2002. 1 w q ( Akram & Mahmood 3)Tj Books are portable, but learners find it somewhat difficult to learn English language via books which may only be available in the classroom context, whereas free online resources are easily accessed. 0 0 0 RG q 1 0 0 1 229.1 26 Tm Similarly, while English is used for official written, documentation and communication, Urdu and/or the local languages are mainly, used for oral interaction in government offices. The official viewpoint resonates with the current discourse of, promoting education for poverty alleviation, a discourse initiated by de, agencies and also embodied in the Millennium Development Goals. Drawing on a range of sources, this paper questions whether English medium instruction, as practiced in many schools across Pakistan, has failed. 0 0 0 rg ), Language, and Development: Africa and Beyond: Proceedings of the 7th Int, Pakistan. There is no way out for the people of developing nations, they have to learn English, and they face different hurdles in learning the language. K, NCERT (National Centre for Educational Resear, paper by national focus group on Indian language. q Q and development in Pakistan. Participants' perceptions were recorded via a five-point Likert-type survey questionnaire. 1 w The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a culturally and linguistically diverse large South Asian country bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the north and west, China to the northeast, India to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. particularly in rural communities in developing countries (e.g. ( Status & Teaching of English in Pakistan )Tj English is an associate official language. 0 Tr The challenge is for education systems to adapt to these complex realities and, provide a quality education which takes into consideration learners’ needs, while. 6 0 obj Is it, therefore, surprising that par, education for their children? 0 Tr I also argue that, because literacy should encourage a sense of greater empowerment on the part of recipients, its acquisition should occur in a local vernacular as opposed to a potentially unfamiliar language of wider communication. endstream To accomplish this, three tools were designed; questionnaire for teachers, a classroom observation each type of the speech acts was uttered in different functions. these countries] multilingualism is more a way of life than a problem to be solved. BT <>stream /XC6 10 Tf 23 0 obj 1 w /XC5 10 Tf ET It is found that implementation lags far behind the major policy change in 1989 for “democratising” English. ET In private schools, while English is ‘officially’ the medium of instruction. The Partition of the Sub-continent did not affect the status of the English language; rather it rapidly gained popularity as a language of communication and professional enterprise. <>stream 18 0 obj The problems are as well discussed which were caused by language for cultural relations and education opportunities. Siraj, A., Baraki, A. and Altshul, J. Although, the teachers employ several strategies to cope with the challenges, they have an adverse impact on language assessment practices in terms of selective skills and sub skills as well as limited choice of test tasks. Q 7 0 obj If not, how can people in de, contexts be enabled to choose one or more languages for individual, societal, The first question seeks to initiate a debate on linguistic rights in developing, countries and indicates the need for empowerment in determining the choice of. Health research in Pakistan often requires questionnaires in English language developed in the West to be translated into the local language. <>stream Data were collected from students at three public sector universities at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and a public sector university at Islamabad, Pakistan through convenience sampling. Q q 0 0 0 RG 36 0 obj<>/Rotate 0>> Q through the use of English in education in Africa and other developing countries. 9 0 obj bilingual discourse is commonly used in the classroom (Shamim and Allen 2000; see also Cleghorn and Rollnick 2002 for similar findings from African classrooms). 0 0 0 RG q Similarly, than 50 per cent of teachers agreed or strongly agr, language courses would help students in meeting future needs. 0 Tr endobj 0 Tr q Phillipson (2009) claims that English is no longer a foreign language in Europe. The aims of teaching could not be achieved without better communication between teacher and students. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. It was concluded that the need to provide enhanced teaching-learning facilities in, public sector universities cannot be over-emphasised, particularly in terms of the, huge demand for English in the employment market (Mansoor et al. endstream endobj 1 0 0 1 -340.05 26 Tm Has English Medium Instruction Failed in Pakistan? Urdu is not only the official language of Pakistan but also the national language of the country. At the beginning of the chapter we noted that Brock-Utne, a leading advocate of, education through indigenous languages in African countries, asks, ‘Education, for all – in whose language?’ She also asks (in the title of a chapter in Brock-Utne, 2000), ‘Whose language and for whose development?’ In this way, the view that English should be used as a medium of instruction particularly in. Thus English language became an essential component in the schools under British administration. 1 w BT The paper also suggests that there are gaps in the educational abilities of various ethno-linguistic groups in the country and that people from different backgrounds have varied attitudes and desires regarding the medium of instruction (MOI). endstream q 0 0 0 rg 0 0 0 rg 0 Tr ( Akram & Mehmood 4)Tj It was found that learners perceived the free online resources as valuable tools for learning English in relation to reading, conversation, and vocabulary and also free online resources help promote free learning norms in learning the English language. 0 0 0 RG Different kinds of relationship exist between language and de. q The first question is a simple one addressing the pragmatics of the current situation, as it exists in many developing countries of the world. It begins with British language policies and then goes on to the policies of the state of Pakistan. These Include the weak background of English, lengthy course outline, limited resources, crowded and multilingual classes, shortage of English teachers, Lack of parents' interest and inadequate teachers' training. international development’: Policy assumptions and practical changes. 2003. Tanzania and South Africa. of the study. However, they have not addressed the challenges causing these weaknesses. The argument centers on analysis of economic realities of the informal economy, in which absence of clear title to tangible assets in low-income countries prevents the entrepreneurial poor from using these assets as collateral and acts as a brake on economic development. 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